Amino acids – the smallest protein unit with an important role

The important functions of the essential, semi-essential and non-essential amino acids contained in Chlorella are so varied, that their importance can only be mentioned briefly: isoleucin, valine and leucine help the cell produce energy and are essential for the optimal functioning of muscles. Methionine is important for the regeneration of the liver and kidneys. Many amino acids that are important for a healthy heart and skeletal muscles are synthesised from methionine. Phenylalinine plays an important role in the activities of many hormones, for example insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels, and thyroxin, which is important for the thyroid gland. A well functioning immune system receives help from a sufficient quantity of Threonin. Tryptophan possesses calming and relaxing properties, causing the distribution of the neuro-transmitter serotonin in the brain. It also helps the body in the production of vitamins. A lack of lysine, amongst other things, has the direct result of a weakening of the immune system. Lysine has a direct effect against viruses and has been successfully used against herpes.

Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is produced from arginine and is at the forefront of important research, having different effects on the nervous, immune and vascular systems. In an experiment on humans, arginine and lysine together produced an increased distribution of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in the pituitary gland. Arginine also possess cancer-reducing properties. Serin can be produced from threonine and is an elementary component of enzymes found in the pancreas and is consequently directly linked to the digestion of proteins. Serin plays an important role in the supply of energy. Histidin is important for the thickening and thinning of blood and has been successfully used in the treatment of allergies. Tyrosin is important for the regulation of hormones. It is converted by the body into the neurotransmitter dopamine, which in turn is used as a precursor for adrenalin. Cystin is recognised as having detoxifying properties, which has lead to many doctors recommending it as medication for heavy metal detoxification, its detoxifying properties being primarily due to its sulphur content.

Intensive and prolonged stress leads to the decomposition of alanine from the muscle tissue as soon as the body has used up its carbohydrate reserves. Because sugar (glucose) is no longer available from the burning of carbohydrates, the liver has to take over glucose production (gluconeogenese). It does this by reverting to alanine and other amino acids from the muscle cells and consequently results in the decomposition of muscle tissue. Alanine, with other amino acids, forms a kind of "emergency fuel" for the body in the case that the "main fuel", carbohydrate, is used up. Sufficient quantities of alanine and plentiful carbohydrate reserves protect the muscles from decomposition and compensate for any losses.

Asparagin and asparaginic acid are fundamental elements for a healthy immune system and play a part in the building and maintenance of RNA and DNA. Glutamine helps the functioning of the brain and is the most important energy carrier in the mucous membranes of the small intestine and the immune system. As the smallest amino acid, glycin plays an important role in the construction and maintenance of the connective tissue. Connective tissue runs through the entire body and surrounds joints, tendons and muscles. In the muscles, it helps activate creatin, an important component of the muscular energy balance. Prolin is important for the composition and maintenance of healthy joints, tendons and bones. It even plays an important part in the heart muscles: a deficit results in a noticeably reduced capacity. It is also suspected that a lack of prolin is also one of the causing factors of arthritis.

Glutamine and glutamic acid are the main energy source for cells in the digestive tract and are important for protein synthesis. Both amino acids help build up a mucous membrane barrier in the intestine and in this way ensure that toxins in the intestine have no possibility of penetrating into the bloodstream or the brain. The immune system's defence cells require glutamine and glutamic acid as fuel for their important task, successfully enabling them to destroy intruders such as bacteria and viruses.

Who else plays in the strong "Chlorella" team?

Minerals, trace elements, fatty acids and vitamins cannot be allowed to go unmentioned. However, the list is so long, that a full discussion exceeds the parameters of this book. A short overview is, however, provided. It is limited to an enumeration of the essential elements and is, therefore, incomplete. Chlorella is, by the way, iodine free.

Minerals/Trace Elements

Calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, chrome, selenium, a little sodium...


Carotinoid (provitamin A) and xanthophyl, thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (Vitamin B2) pyridoxin (vitamin B6), cobalamine, (vitamin B12), biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D...

Secondary plant substances – the joker

There are more plant substances from chlorella which must be mentioned. They are the so called "secondary plant substances", which are in no way second rate, as their name would suggest. They are produced in small quantities in the "secondary respiration" of all plants. In "primary respiration" plants produce and use all the substances they require for growth – fat, carbohydrates and protein. Secondary respiration synthesises substances which the plant needs, for example, for defence from predators and to protect the plant from being eaten. Pheromones, which attract insects for pollination, also come under the category of "secondary plant substances".

Most of the estimated 30,000 secondary plant substances remain either chemically undiscovered, or their function and possible value for animals and humans has not yet been sufficiently researched. Since the 1980's, scientists from different scientific areas have isolated and researched the function of around 10,000 secondary plant materials. Lycopin from tomatoes, for example, belongs to the carotinoids, and has been found to help in cases of prostate illness. Additionally, the bioflavonoids, which strengthen the effect of natural vitamins, such as vitamin C, were discovered in this research.

The following shows examples of plant substances from chlorella and their effects.

Chlorellan/Chlorellin – a natural antibiotic

This substance has proved itself to be exceptionally active against bacteria. It is especially effective against bacteria which are harmful to the human organism. The so called "friendly" bacteria found in the digestive tract are simultaneously helped and protected by chlorella during their growth phase. In this way, we can speak of a natural antibiotic. With the help of this substance, the algae protects against bacterial attackers. Amongst other factors, one of the positive effects for humans is that the immune system is supported.

In the daily fight for survival, Chlorella has succeeded in developing defensive strategies against fungus. Polish researchers introduced the micro-algae to various fungal strains, including aspergillus and candida. With the help of its secondary plant substances, Chlorella successfully prevented the fierce growth of most of the fungi, of which, at the end of the experiment over 70% showed no signs of growth and were consequently unable to suppress Chlorella.

One of the most important and most recognised amongst the well-known and well-researched secondary plant substances from Chlorella is the green plant pigment chlorophyll. Unfortunately, the most exciting results in the field of chlorophyll research from the past seventy years have not been medically accepted. Chlorophyll is a fascinating natural substance which possesses an enormous spectrum of action. Read for yourself:

Chlorophyll as a natural remedy

In the Far East, Chlorella is often described as "an edible emerald". This reverent comparison is not unfounded. The association of "green" and "valuable" not only alludes to the fact that Chlorella is a valuable green foodstuff but also emphasises an extremely valuable substance found in high concentration within it: chlorophyll. Before I summarise the most important properties of chlorophyll, I would like to inform you of the chlorophyll content of various plants.

Chlorophyll Content of different Plants

(Grams of chlorophyll per 100 gram. Dry weight)
Chlorella 1.5-4.0
Stinging nettle 0.6-0.8
Grass 0.7
Spinach -
Horse chestnut 0.9-1.0
Broccoli 0.8-1.2
Lucerne 0.2-0.4

Chlorophyll helps protect Chlorella from overheating. Almost like an antenna, chlorophyll catches blue and red sunlight, which is important for gaining energy through photosynthesis. Chlorophyll reflects back the remaining part of the sunlight, which is the green light.

Chlorophyll and modern physics.

Modern physics is concerned with the research of invisible but measurable light energy of plant and animal cells. The parts of light energy used by cells are called "biophotons". They are visible in costly technical experiments. Biophotons represent a previously unacknowledged energy which deserves as much attention as the research of the biochemical processes of respiration after food consumption.

Biophoton-theory primarily examines the food consumption of humans from a different perspective and maintains that we must also absorb a large quantity of light energy along the necessary intake of food substances in order to stay healthy. Chlorophyll is optimally devolved to absorb the energy from the sun and store it with minimal loss. Its goal is to pass on the light energy to the cell nucleus, or, more accurately, the DNA. Finally, DNA becomes the source and store-house for biophotonic light. Recordings show that at least 75% of this energy comes from the cell nucleus.

A consequential result of this exciting research work is that Chlorella constitutes an edible form of concentrated light energy!

Chlorophyll – multitalented in homeopathic cures

The results of medical research on the effects of chlorophyll are equally impressive. Chlorophyll...
- has a detoxifying effect and supports the functions of the intestine
- is an antimutagen (it protects genetic information from damage)
- prevents cancer (for example, liver cancer)
- helps against anaemia.
- reduces odours (such as halitosis and body odour)
- alleviates pain
- is a balanced heart tonic and regulates blood pressure
- is an antioxidatant – it protects against damaging oxidation of the cell-membrane (prevents lipidperoxidation)
- helps in the healing process of wounds
- stimulates, and increases endurance
- is antibacterial
- helps prevent the growth of kidney stones.

You will be able to recognise without much difficulty that chlorophyll is an important member of the "Chlorella active ingredient team". My experiences have shown me that chlorophyll supports and is supported by all the other team members, so that an impressive positive team spirit prevails in Chlorella, which increases the ability of every individual substance found within this unique algae. In other words: Chlorella is more effective than each individual substance alone. It represents the optimal interaction of many substances.

Sterol – effective in the fight against pain and inflammation

Secondary plant substances also contain a complete range of so called sterols. Cholesterol and ergosterin, which produces the active form of vitamin D using energy from the sun's rays in plants, belong to the sterol group. Despite chemical similarities, sterols from Chlorella have nothing in common with cholesterin and cortisone. Recently, Japanese researchers have made important discoveries concerning sterol from Chlorella. The different sterols from Chlorella have been found and chemically categorised.

In animal experiments, Chlorella-sterols have proven to be exceptionally effective in the fight against skin and breast cancer. Equally exciting are the results of the research on the anti-inflammatory effect of sterol, which showed that sterol is equally effective as the powerful antiphlogistic indometazin. It is well known that one of the major disadvantages of classical medical painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs is their potentially dangerous side effects. The fact that the secondary plant substances from Chlorella are well tolerated by the body speaks for itself.

Sporopollenin – Protection for humans and Plants

Sporopollenin is yet another of the secondary plant materials found in Chlorella. It is probable that sporopollenin consists of a complex molecule (a so-called polymer) from the carotinoid group, which is located in the cell wall of the algae. Sporopollenin protects Chlorella from drying out, allowing oxygen transportation from one surface to the next within the algae. It is probable that every Chlorella strain possesses a definite type of sporopollenin structure.

Protection from dehydration which is so important for Chlorella brings with it an equally important advantage for the plants and animals which consume it: the protection from environmental pollution. Scientific experiments have shown that with the help of polymers such as sporopollenin from the cell wall, Chlorella binds to irreversibly damaging materials which are then excreted from the body in the stools. This is not only true for heavy metals, but also pesticide, insecticides and other environmental pollutants such as the extremely poisonous dioxin or the organochloridebond chlordecon. In mammals, this is even more toxic than DDT. Although these experiments were carried out on animals, the clearly positive results have lead Japanese scientists to use Chlorella in detoxification treatments for humans.

An ever-increasing number of therapists are using Chlorella on patients suffering heavy metal poisoning from amalgam with great success. This sort of heavy metal poisoning has existed in Asia for decades. I have already mentioned the detoxification of the victims of the environmental catastrophe in Japan, a consequence of which was that the staple food crop, rice, was severely polluted with cadmium (see page 12). Another environmental catastrophe in Taiwan lead to the contamination of drinking water with arsenic.

People who drank the poisoned water suffered from the following symptoms: severe diarrhoea, vomiting, cramps, severe head and rheumatic pains, fever, signs of paralysis with a tingling sensation, loss of feeling in the legs. Many people died.

Fortunately, many of the doctors treating the poison victims were aware of the detoxifying properties of Chlorella and successfully used it in treatment, whereby many lives were saved.

Detoxification – more important than ever!

Environmental pollutants have countless negative effects on the health of humans and animals. They weaken the immune system and cause cancer. Even though the purity of our drinking water is highly praised, the intensive use of insecticides and herbicides in agriculture has an increasingly negative effect on its quality. Additionally, many of the by-products from these pesticides have contaminated the water table and pollute our drinking water over a sustained period. From over 10,000 possible poisonous substances, only 50 are regularly controlled, so that the analysis certificates at water treatment plants are often deceptive: you can only find what you set out to look for. Despite implicit scientific proof of the danger of increasing environmental pollution and cancer rates, many scientists and politicians deny the correlation.

In consideration of this daily danger, which is almost imperceptible to our senses, everyone should seek to protect themselves and those close to them from pollution by regularly taking Chlorella and C.G.F.

Chlorella can mobilise macrophages, so called destroyer cells, of the body's defence system. These cells consume the foreign substances, including heavy metals, which are then transported to the excretory organs by the lymphatic system.

Glutathion is an important detoxification enzyme found in mammals and in especially high quantities in the liver cells. The liver plays an important role in removing toxins from the bodies of animals and humans. Indian researchers have observed, that Chlorella increases the glutathion count of cells, and in this way supports the bodily detoxification process. It is possible that it also helps other enzymes important in the detoxification process.

The algae produces sulphur-rich storage-protein, metallothionine, which quickly binds to heavy metals. It is probably possible for the algae to produce special types of metallothionine for different heavy metals. These are removed from the body in the urine or stools . These poison-binding molecules are heat resistant, are resistant to the various solvents, and are a component of C.G.F.

With the help of memory and transport proteins, Chlorella binds heavy metals in its cell-wall, or stores them in cytosol in the inside of its cells. This process is independent of the fact whether Chlorella is living or dead. The cell-wall complex with the bound heavy metal is simply a component of Chlorella and C.G.F. They are indigestible for humans and are excreted from the body. Metallic toxins were even removed from highly concentrated heavy metal solutions. The micro-algae possesses an amazing affinity with poisonous metals, while "physiological metals" such as calcium and magnesium are not bound in any notable concentration.

In addition to binding poisonous substances, Chlorella is indirectly implicated in the removal of toxins from the body because it contributes towards the health of all of the body's excretory organs. When the liver, intestine, kidneys, skin and lungs are healthy, the body's excretory ability is not to be underestimated. In this way, Chlorella is able to make an inestimable contribution to the detoxification of the body, which today is so necessary.