Chlorella – a micro algae

A short introduction to the living world of the cell

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, cell theory conquered the world of scientific development, gaining its position as the foundation for all scientific work concerning the living world. The French researcher Rene Dutrochet was the first to realise the importance of the cell when he wrote in 1824 "This organ [the cell] which on the outside appears to be so simple when compared to the extreme diversity of its composition, actually constitutes the basis of every living organism. It is a fact that in plants the entire organic tissue derives from the cell, and investigation has shown us, that the situation is exactly the same in animals."

Further knowledge of the importance of the cell as the "smallest living unit" was gained by the discovery of single cell life forms in 1845. At around the same time, the first worthy description of the nucleus as the protected "heart" of the cell was published. By the end of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to understand the incredible importance of the various parts of the cell for its survival and the transmission of the information contained in nucleus. This was followed in the twentieth century by the discovery that the cell possessed different "organs" with varying functions. These "organs" were named organelles. Furthermore, the structure of the information in the nucleus was first recognised and then deciphered.

Important developments in analysis techniques have given scientists a further insight into the functioning of the smallest of cell components, the bio-molecule. In this form, the genetic information is saved as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Decoding DNA reveals all the information of the genetic determination, including physical characteristics, such as skin, hair, and eye colour, as well as all the important information concerning the functioning of the digestive and immune systems, the production of hormones, such as insulin and cortisone, as well as the functioning of other metabolic actions which are important for health. Considering that DNA is so important, we should do everything to support the preservation of our genetic makeup.

Unfortunately we know more about how DNA is damaged than we do about maintaining its health. One thing is absolutely clear: when our DNA suffers, so does our health. Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, over exposure to the sun, environmental pollution and a chronic lack of sleep, all belong to the list of "DNA Pests". Everyone should remember that regular and sufficient sleep is fundamental for good health. In spite of this, many people still get too little sleep. Since the 1970's, the already too low average number of hours slept has reduced by a further 30 minutes. Considering the natural rhythms of the different intensive phases within a normal sufficient sleep period, researchers have unanimously come to the conclusion that we wake up after only two thirds of the biologically necessary amount of sleep The consequence of this is that the average American adult has accumulated a "sleep deficit" of around 500 hours. To a certain extent, the beneficial ritual of the siesta so popular in Mediterranean countries can compensate for this and protect us from illness. A 30 minute nap reduces the risk of heart attacks by 30%. If the length of the siesta is increased to an hour, the risk is reduced by 50%.

A sensible and balanced diet, rich in the building blocks for regular "maintenance" and regeneration of DNA, along with sufficient sleep, gain a leading place among competitors for "DNA Helpers". Because C.G.F. is especially rich in the building blocks for both DNA and RNA, it is worthy of a place on the winners' rostrum.

RNA (ribonucleic acid) is responsible for the transmission of genetic information within the cell. DNA is damaged due to the natural aging process, and also sun damage and other factors. RNA repairs and cares for damage to the DNA chains, protecting the cell from illness and premature death.

Now is a suitable time to describe the most important cell organelles and their functions:

1. Nucleus The nucleus is the largest cell organelle, and every cell possesses one. The genetic information, which determines the life and function of the cell is located here. From a biochemical viewpoint, the nucleus contains complex proteins, the nucleic acids, of which ribonucleic acid (DNA and RNA) are the most commonly known.

2. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. They burn substances to produce a constant supply of energy for cellular respiration. According to their requirements, cells possess up to 2000 of these powerhouses. If you do a lot of sport, the number of mitochondria in the muscle cells will increase considerably over a period of months. However, the number will rapidly decrease if you become sedentary. The human liver cell has 2500 mitochondria.

3. Golgi Apparatus: All cells possess a Golgi Apparatus. According to the function of the cell, it acts as a kind of "cell gland", providing material for the building and maintenance of the cell and cell wall (membrane). For example, in the pancreas, the Golgi Apparatus is responsible for the production of digestive enzymes. Additionally, it protects the cell from harmful substances by isolating them.

4. Lysosomes, Peroxisomes: Every cell possesses several of these small, ball shaped, organelles which carry out different tasks.

5. Endoplasmatic Reticulum (ER): The ER constantly synthesises complex proteins and other important cell building blocks containing lipids. These are used by the cell itself or are transported to other parts of the organism.

6. Chloroplasts, where photosynthesis takes place, are found exclusively in plant cells.

7. Cell Membrane is a complex structure that separates the cell and its organelles from its environment. The exchange of substances and the sending and receiving of signals takes place through the membrane. Plant cells also possess a multi-layered cell wall. Animal cells, however, only possess a single layered cell membrane with an inner and outer skin.

8. Cytosol cannot, strictly speaking, be classed as a cell organelle. It consists of small fatty droplets which exist in the fluids in the inside of the cell and serves as a method of transport and data storage.

Life also exists in the form of a single cell – the amoeba. Higher life forms, to which plants and humans belong, consist of hundreds of millions of specialized cells. All currently known life forms can be divided into two groups according to their cell structure: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotes are exclusively single cell organisms. They possess no nucleus and usually do without most of the other cell organelles. The disadvantage of their simple composition is compensated to a certain extent by their increased adaptability. Well-known prokaryotes are bacteria and blue-green algae such as Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae ("AFA Algae"). In Germany, bacteria which photosynthesise are unfortunately labelled as blue or blue-green algae . Really, Spirulina and AFA-algae should be correctly labelled as "Blue-Green Bacteria".

Like the remaining plants, animals and humans the fresh water algae Chlorella, is a eukaryot. This is recognisable through its complicated cell wall and cell organelles, and is of enormous importance, because C.G.F. is an extract from the eukaryotic micro-algae Chlorella! The close genetic relationship between Chlorella cells and those of humans means that the algae is easily digestible and is biologically valuable as a food supplement for us. This is particularly applicable to the Chlorella extract C.G.F.

Biochemists were amazed when they discovered that, from a genetic viewpoint, a sugar transport-protein from Chlorella corresponds 50% to a human red blood cell transport-protein.

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